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The enlarged inner or outer labia represent an aesthetic, psychosexual and functional problem in women. During sexual intercourses, pain and chronic irritation often occur and no adequate hygiene can be maintained. The enlarged inner labia are mostly a congenital problem, and they also occur due to hormonal therapy, after the childbirth, or as a consequence of an injury. A surgical technique is used to remove the surplus and, if necessary, an additional reconstruction of inner labia is done or the asymmetry is corrected.


An epispadias represents a congenital urogenital anomaly in which the external aperture of the urethra is located on the dorsal-upper side of the penis. The anomaly is characterised by existing of the wide-gapping plate on the upper side of the penile body, while an excess of skin is located on the lower side, covering the glans penis. Often the incontinence-impossibility of retaining the urine is developed, and the most common combined anomalies are cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) and generation of an inguinal hernia. In the adult persons, sexual relations are practically impossible, as the penis is pressed against the anterior abdominal wall. It is rare in women, and is manifested by a short split urethra and a bifid clitoris. Epispadias is often combined with the bladder extrophy. An optimal time for surgical correction is around 2 years of age. A surgical treatment implies a correction of the penile curvature, reconstruction of the missing part of the urethra and achieving of the normal appearance of the external genitals. A full reconstruction of all the parts of the penis is required, along with solving the incontinence problem.


A curved penis is a very common phenomenon and it can be congenital or acquired. It can occur anywhere on the penile body and turn it in every direction. A congenital curvature of the penis can be downside/oriented and is caused by the scar tissue located under the penis surface, or it can be lateral to the left or to the right, caused by an uneven length of the erectile penile bodies. The acquired penile curvature is caused by the disease called the PEYRONIE DISEASE, and results in creation of scar tissue on the very penile bodies.

During erection, the scar tissue limits the extension of this part of the penis, and by that causes the bending of the penis to one side.A surgical technique of treating this problem implies placing of certain sutures alongside the penile body, in order for the genital organ to retreat to the side which is opposite to the curve. This method can sometimes cause mild shortening of the penis, and s therefore often combined with the technique of enlargement of the genital organ.


A dug-in penis represents a phenomenon in which the penis is hidden, dug in the skin of the pubic region, which significantly reduces its length, and the causes are lack of the skin of the penile body or excess of the fat tissue of the pubic region. It can also occur after overcircumcising or lack of skin. The dug-in penis represents a functional, aesthetic and psychological problem.

The objective of the surgical intervention is to use the preputium for covering the penis in whole. Sometimes the best effect is achieved by liposuction – removal of the subcutaneous fat tissue of the pubic region. The intervention is completed with exteriorisation of the entire penile body and additional reconstruction of penopubic and penoscrotal angles.


Phimosis A phimosis is a difficult or fully enabled pulling the foreskin over the glans penis, and the disease can be congenital or acquired. The glans penis cannot be liberated – sometimes only in erection, and sometimes in the loose state as well. Besides, there is a situation when the frenulum on the lower side of the glans penis is short, and at pulling the foreskin, this frenulum pulls the glans penis downwards and creates pain, interfering with normal sexual intercourse. The frenulum often breaks, which creates painful sores which heal with difficulty, and when they do, the frenulum can become even shorter. The acquired phimosis can occur due to scarring and narrowing of the preputium after the inflammation processes or due to the oedema after the acute inflammation.

Due to the excess skin, there is a urine blockade, smegma secretion and secondary infection, which leads to chronic irritation. Circumcision is a surgical technique by which an excess skin is removed partially or in whole, and is performed in local anaesthesia. Paraphimosis is a condition in which the foreskin cannot be pulled back over the glans penis and cover it, but it remains under the glans penis and tights it firmly causing pain and swelling, and in a long-lasting one even a gangrene. Paraphimosis occurs most often after masturbation or sexual intercourse, while the penis is still erected, and it can happen in children (although rarely), e.g. at maintaining hygiene or forced pulling over the foreskin. The objective of the surgical intervention is to cut the foreskin and to free the glans penis. If there is gangrene, a radical circumcision of the foreskin is required.


The procedures of the penis augmentation imply the surgical techniques which increase width or length of the male sexual organ. There are several methods of increasing of the male sexual organ. On average, from 1/3 to ½ of penis are in the body connected to the pubic bone. One of the methods of the penis prolongation is based on liberation of the fundiform and suspensor ligament that link the erectile bodies of the penis with the pubic bone. This technique is called ligamentolysis and it provides that the part of the penis which,

was recessed inside of the body is liberated and the penis gets longer by some 2-3 cm. The intervention results depend on several factors. The difference in length will be bigger in the patients with larger penis, as usually there is more tissue in the body liberated by intervention than in the patients with smaller penis. Also, if there is more fat tissue in the pubic region, it can conceal the part of the penis and thus reduce the result. Therefore a liposuction of this region often gets performed as well.


Reduction or amputation of the breasts and forming of natural, flat male breasts (after a genital transformation of the female into male sex).

The mammary gland and the excess skin are removed through the circular incision around the nipple. The aspiration drainage is left and stays there for 48 hours.

The operation is performed in total anaesthesia in duration of 1,5 – 2 hours, depending on the breast size.

Wearing of elastic compressive bandage for a week is necessary. The sutures are removed gradually after 10 to 14 days.

A creased skin around the nipple, which gradually disappears completely after several months.