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BENIGN SKIN TUMOURS

Mole (nevus)
is a benign skin and mucose change that can vary in colour, shape and size. A grown person has some 15-20 moles – some exist from birth, and others appear later in life. Moles are not to be removed, except in the case of unsuitable localisation at the constantly irritated spot (by underwear, clothes, jewellery) or for aesthetic reasons, but occasionally they should be checked and the attention should be paid to their growth, colour, shape and accompanying phenomena, such as itching, flaking or bleeding. They are removed by surgical excision, and the final diagnosis is verified histo-pathologically.

Papiloma
is a benign skin and mucose epithelium change of viral origin. Most frequently they are on the neck, upper arm, in the armpit, under the breasts, on the stomach and groins. It has various shapes, often hangs, is elastic, and has a colour of the skin. It is removed by radioexcision or smaller surgical excision.

Lipoma
is a benign fat tissue tumour which usually appears in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck, on the back, shoulders, abdominal wall. It has small dimensions, although sometimes it has gigantic dimensions. Lipoma is a soft, elastic node which is not always well distinguished from the surrounding tissue, and it is covered with the skin of unchanged appearance. It has to be carefully removed in whole, as possible remains of this tumour can be a cause of its repeated appearing.

Keratosis
is a flat yellowish skin change of various sizes, located usually on the covered body parts – face, neck, cleavage, arms, back. It does not appear on the palms and foots soles. In time it grows and becomes darker, even black. It is removed by radio-waves.

Dermatofibroma
is manifested on the skin as individual or multiple, hard or painless node. It appears in adult persons, on the limbs, and sometimes on other body parts as well. It is reddish or yellowish-brown, from several millimetres to several centimetres in size. It is removed by surgical excision.

Ateroma
is a skin change which represents a blocked sebaceous gland which is joined to the skit occurs on the face, head, earlobes, neck and back. An infection with festering signs can develop. It has to be removed in whole, as otherwise it can re-appear.

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MALIGANT SKIN TUMOURS

Basal-cell skin carcinoma
is the most frequent skin tumour. It occurs in older age groups, and appears on the body parts exposed to sun, such as face and hands. It can have various shapes and ways of growth: flat or projecting, with erythematous and even squamous surface, some appear as yellowish nodes, while the others are dark pigmented. Very rarely forms metastases, but locally it can be very invasive and infiltrate into local structures.

Plane-cell skin carcinoma
is the second frequent malignant skin tumour. It ncan appear anywhere on the body, but very rarely it occurs on the unchanged skin. There are two forms of plane-cell carcinoma: the first looks like a small lesion, covered with crust, of round or irregular form, while the second form of this tumour usually looks like a small bulge which gradually penetrates the surrounding subcutaneous tissue. This tumour has all the characteristics of actual malignant disease: local-infiltrative growth, appearance of recidives and frequent metastases.

Melanoma
is relatively rare, but most aggressive of all the malignant tumours. Moles, UV radiation, heritage, hormones, chemical factors represent risk factors. In the majority of cases, a malignant melanoma appears on the field of the existing nevuses, and very rarely from the unchanged skin. The change is suspected of malignant melanoma if it is assymetric, changed colour, has irregular edges, often bleeds or itches, and has a diameter of more than 6 mm.

A wide incision is applied in all the cases in order to eliminate every possibility of local recidive of illness. In case that some of malignant skin tumours is located on the face, a post-operative defect reconstuction is done by means of autotransplant or local lobe. The most secure way of fighting these skin tumours is their prevention – if any change is noticed on the mole in growth, perimeter, colour or if the nevus bleeds, its surgical removal and histological verification is required.